Stories of design across all media

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Glossary

2D Animation
Used to create the illusion of movement, the process takes a series of two-dimensional art (drawings, illustrations or photographs) that are nearly identical and displays them in rapid succession.

3D Animation
Often used today in video games and virtual reality, 3D animation creates the illusion of movement, but with the added dimension of depth or space. The process consists of three stages: 3D modeling, layout and animation, and 3D rendering.

3D Printing
A process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D printing is done on specialized equipment that adds successive layers of material (liquid, powder, paper, or sheet material) to build up the shape in cross sections. 3D printing is often used to create prototypes.Advertising

Advertising
The means by which a business communicates with the public about its product or service for the purpose of making sales, sending a message, and/or building brand recognition. The means are as varied today as the technology: radio, television, cable, print, smartphone, tablet, streaming, video, interactive applications, and social media

Affiliate Marketing Program
A business offers compensation to a third party that sells that business’ product or service. For example, Zee Company sells sable artist’s paint brushes. Artist Helen has a blog that reaches several thousand aspiring painters. Artist Helen runs a banner ad on her blog for Zee Company’s brushes. That banner ad has a special identifying link embedded within it. When a sable paintbrush is sold through that link, Zee Company pays Artist Helen a percentage of the sale.

Art Direction
This is the act of overseeing and directing the visual aspects of a marketing campaign to ensure that the visuals are compelling, aesthetically pleasing, and come together to achieve the goal of the campaign as determined in the brief.

Big Data
Digitized information (records, statistics, patterns) that captures what is happening among individuals, groups, machines, markets, and even natural systems. Marketers value big data for the ability to use it to predict consumer behavior

Blog Ghost Writing
When a professional writer composes the content of a blog on behalf of another person. The writer does this anonymously. The owner of the blog presents the content under his or her name.

Blog Marketing
The use of blogs to market products and/or services or enhance a brand’s reach and recognition. Blog content is easily and frequently updated and conveys useful or entertaining information to its audience. Blogs are also a means of gathering useful data on clients and prospects. For example, a big box home improvement store might market to its clients and prospects by posting daily how-to articles on the blog relating to home maintenance.

Branding & Identity Development
The process by which a company determines its culture, values, strengths, weaknesses, business goals, marketing objectives, and client profiles in order to create a desired impression with its target market. The tangibles developed from this process will most often include a logo, tagline, and graphic guidelines for internal as well as external visual presentations.

Casting
The process of selecting actors and/or performers for a production such as a video or television commercial.

Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI)
The application of computer graphics to enhance images or create visual scenes. Most commonly used to refer to three-dimensional computer graphics used for special effects in films and television (like that flying logo), CGI can be also two-dimensional. CGI is used to illustrate medical devices, demonstrate mechanical processes, render product prototypes, visualize a wide variety of complex graphic concepts, and create artwork and book illustrations.

Concept Development
The process by which the goals and strategies for advertising or marketing campaigns are determined. For example, the goal may be to develop trust in the brand, and the strategy might be to use a recognizable public figure known for his or her integrity as the company’s spokesperson.

Consumer Testing
The process by which a product or service is tested for reliability and effectiveness. This testing may be done with the public to determine their interest or reaction to a product or service. It may also be done in an independent laboratory setting as a means of establishing data on which to market a product or service.

Copywriting
The form of writing composed for advertising and promotional purposes. Copywriting is specifically intended to compel a person to take a desired action such as buying, opting in or engaging with the product or company.

Database Programming
A process that involves developing and constructing a computer system or application designed to manage and analyze a set of data. The system or app will interface with the user, other applications and the data. For marketing purposes, the data might be client names, social media preferences, job titles, buying habits, ages, genders, or any other relevant information that helps marketers in their efforts to communicate with clients or prospects.

Direct Response Campaign
A campaign consisting of display advertising. The campaign’s goal is to compel the target audience to take immediate action (e.g. picking up the phone, filling out a form, clicking a link, or buying a product).

eCommerce
Electronic commerce (eCommerce) is the act of buying and selling products and/or services on the Internet. eCommerce also includes banking and paying bills online.

Email Advertising
Sending clients and/or prospective buyers information about your product or service via an email with the goal of getting the email recipient to take the desired action.

Exhibition Design
Exhibition designers create and apply graphic information to physical objects and places. This can include signage and fixtures such as display cases or kiosks for retails stores, museums and exhibition halls.

Fulfillment
The act of completing a customer order for goods and/or services or answering an inquiry about those goods and/or services.

Game Design & Development
The process by which an electronic game is created. Movies and games have many elements in common and require similar skill sets such as writing and illustration. Game design and development can involve coding, programming, drawing, color theory, modeling, animation (2D and 3D), scriptwriting, storyboarding, and character design.

Geo Data Conversion
Geo data is computerized geographical information on your clients or prospects that is gathered and stored. Marketers will convert that data into useful information that guides marketing decisions. This may be as fundamental as determining where your clients live and work and how that affects their buying habits to more complex tools such as applications that locate people and send them marketing emails and texts based on that location.

Illustration
The visual representation of a person or object. An illustration may be done by drawing on paper, painting on a canvas, or via a computer program such as Adobe Illustrator.

Industrial Design
The process by which a designer uses the tools and principles of art and science to improve the appearance, usability and function of an object.

Location Scouting
Sending someone out to explore various geographic locations in an effort to determine the best place to shoot still photography or construct a set for filming.

Mailing Service
The act of preparing and sending out direct mail pieces. This service can be performed by in-house experts or contracted out to companies that specialize in this area. The service can include such activities as: acquiring necessary mailing or shipping permits, advising on graphic design requirements, sorting for U.S. Postal Service Bulk Mail requirements, packaging and labeling of boxes, and transporting to the location from which the piece will be shipped.

Marketing Communications
The messages a company sends to its target audience via various printed and electronic means. The communications are intended to convey an impression about the company and its products or services or to elicit a desired response from clients and prospects. These means may include press releases, point of purchase signage, print advertising, emails, radio ads, television spots, games, mobile applications, video, and personal interviews.

Media Buying
The act of purchasing time or physical space to broadcast a message on behalf of a company, individual or interest group. Prime considerations are given to the price of the media and the target market the chosen media reaches.

Media Planning/Consulting
Research into and development of goals and strategies for reaching the target market. Consideration is given to the kinds of ads to be placed, the number of ads to be placed, the most effective medium for reaching the desired audience (e.g. radio or television or print), the type of platform best able to reach potential customers (e.g. blog, news or entertainment channel), and the dollars allocated for each type of placement.

Mobile Application Development
The act of designing and creating an application that may be used on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets for the purpose of connecting a company and/or its products and/or services directly with the clients or prospects who would benefit from using them.

Mobile Web Design & Development
The process of creating the graphics and words that will become a functional and aesthetically pleasing whole when viewed on a mobile electronic devise such as a smartphone or tablet.

Package Design
Using the tools of art and science to create and produce packaging suitable for a particular product. Consideration is given to function (Will the product be stored, shipped, displayed?); visual aesthetics (Will potential clients like and connect with the product colors, images and textures?); visual messaging (Will the product stand out among the competition?); and security (Does the packaging need to be tamperproof or protect the contents?).

Photography, Lifestyle
A specialty within commercial photography that includes photographic images of people in an environment that depicts specific and recognizable lifestyles, interests or occupations. For example, marketers wanting to convey a sense of luxury might choose a lifestyle photograph of a woman receiving a massage on the beach. Other commercial photography specialties are portrait, food and architecture.

Photography, Product
A specialty within commercial photography that includes photographic images of the actual item the marketer is selling or advertising. This could be a car, a tube of lipstick, a book, a pair of shoes, a chainsaw, etc. Other commercial photography specialties are portrait, food and architecture.

Point-of-Purchase (POP) Display Design
The planning and creation of physical objects that are intended to present a product in a professional and visually appealing way and differentiate that product from its competition. POP displays are positioned where customers are shopping. Examples include plastic boxes to hold cards, metal racks that hold clothing, backlighted signage, video presentations that demonstrate the product and its uses.

Print Design
A graphic design process that creates ink-on-substrate tangibles such as cards, brochures, sales kits, magazines, shopping bags, posters, invitations, labels, menus, coupons, folders, calendars, mailers, etc. for the purpose of communicating with the client or prospect.

Print Management
The person, persons or company responsible for the successful planning, pricing, and manufacturing of printed (ink-on-substrate) materials.

Production
A general term applied to the actual manufacturing of an end product. For cross-media marketing, production may take place in a printing plant, a film or video studio, or a specialty company that produces pens, mugs, t-shirts, etc.

Promotion Administration
The person, persons or company responsible for the successful planning and implementation of events or sales offers designed to make the promoted goods or services more attractive to clients and prospects. Examples of promotional activities include: contests, celebrity appearances, nonprofit-linked events, and prize drawings.

Rapid Application Development (RAD)
A process of modeling where each component or function of a product or application is developed as incremental pieces that are brought together in the end as an integrated whole. Practitioners believe that RAD produces faster results of higher quality and allows for better integration from the outset, more customer feedback, and quick initial reviews. RAD involves gathering information via focus groups, early prototyping, repetitive testing, less formal communication among the working groups, design improvements delayed until the next version of the product is released.

Re-Targeting
A conversion-optimization tool that uses a cookie-based technology to anonymously follow the target audience across the Web. An unnoticeable piece of code that has been placed on your website is dropped onto the browsers of new website visitors. When the visitor later browses the Web, the cookie will let a re-targeting provider know when to serve ads. The goal of re-targeting is the effective placement of ads (i.e. in front of folks who have visited your website before).

Retouching (Creative)
A process that combines different image editing techniques such as photo manipulation, digital illustration and compositing to achieve an artistic or more interesting result. Three- dimensional, computer-generated elements may be used to add features, backgrounds and photorealistic effects that create amazingly true-to-life images or to create otherworldly images where products and people interact.

Retouching (Technical)
A process of manipulating photographs with the intention of restoring or enhancing the images. Technical retouching may involve adjustments to color, contrast, white balance, sharpness, removing visible flaws on skin or materials, knocking out backgrounds, adding elements to camouflage unwanted features within the photograph.

Rich Media Ad Design
A rich media ad includes not only text (such as a call to action or copy describing the product or service) and graphics (such as an image or logo), but also has interactivity or the capability of expanding the user’s experience such as a link that takes the user to a high-definition video (e.g. movie trailer on Fandango) or a link that will automatically call a phone number (e.g. link in an ad for a hotel chain that connects to the phone reservations line). The creative process used to create a rich media ad involves graphic design and Flash coding skills.

Script Writing/Development
The act of writing a screenplay (dialogue and action) for films, commercials, videos, cartoons, television programs, and video games. Development refers to the process a writer or a group of writers undertakes that involves asking and ultimately answering questions that help to move the characters through the story being told.

Search Engine Marketing
A form of online marketing that increases a website’s visibility on Search Engine Results Pages (SERP). This can be done through advertising or search engine optimization (SEO).

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
The process of increasing the number of visitors to a particular website by ensuring that the site appears high (within the first page) on the list of results returned by a search engine such as Google or Bing.

Social Media
Tools used to network on the Internet. These tools may be a website or application. Examples of social media sites include Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, Tumblr, LinkedIn, Google+, YouTube, etc.  Examples of social media apps include: Skype, Vine, InstaFollow, Hangouts, Osfoora, Loop, FastFeed, Tweetbot, HootSuite, etc.

Social Media Content Strategy
The means and plans by which a company engaged in marketing with social media tools achieves its goals. Goals might include driving traffic to the main website, increasing awareness of a product or service, providing relevant and valuable content (e.g. how-to information, resources, entertainment, and curated news) to followers that will have the effect of positioning a company as an expert or indispensible source in its field.

Social Media Management
The person, persons or company responsible for setting up company pages on social media websites such as Facebook and Twitter. Social media managers also create and post the bios, content and hashtags used on those pages. A social media manager may also help marketers develop social media goals and strategy for attracting the target audience (followers), and be responsible for responding to follower comments as well as following and commenting on other relevant social media users. Duties may also include tracking and analyzing what content gathers the most response or interaction.

Social Media Marketing
The act of using social media tools to communicate with clients and prospects for the purpose of creating interest and awareness of a brand, selling products or services, gathering marketing data and preferences, and driving traffic to a website.

Storyboarding
A method of organizing how a story or video will proceed from start to finish. Storyboarding is always sequential and usually involves visual representation (e.g. graphics, photos, illustrations) of that progression. A storyboard helps a marketer more easily see the points the story or marketing message is trying to make. It can be as simple as a set of squares drawn on a piece of paper with steps written inside each square or as elaborate as the inclusion of scripts, list of props and color schemes.

UI/UX Design
Also known as Interaction Design or User Experience Design, this field of design practice centers around user interaction with your website and providing users with a good product or service experience on your website. Clear, engaging and properly functioning graphic design plays a key role in providing this “good experience” as does a thorough examination and understanding of how your website pages function independently and with each other; how the user came to the page; what he or she hopes to get out of the interaction on that page; and how the user responds to changing pages, returning to pages, etc.

Video Editing
This process involves manipulating and rearranging the frames of a video for the purpose of creating a new version of the video. You might edit a video to shorten it; to make it more entertaining; to add music, graphics, still photographs, or special effects; to slow or quicken the pace; to change the color through the use of filters; or to more effectively tell the story.

Video Production
The act of producing moving images electronically. You can break production into two parts: live production (the shooting of live action or action as it happens) and post-production (where the video editing takes place).

Voice Over
The narration in a video where the actor or speaker is not seen.

Web Analytics
The code or software that measures how many different people (unique visitors) visit a website (or a particular page on a website), how often that person visits, how long the person spends visiting that page or website, how the visitor found the website, and what links that person clicked within a particular page. This data can be used by marketers to track the effectiveness and functionality of the website or website page.

Web Customer Research
The online process of determining customer demographics, habits and preferences in regards to a particular existing product, service, brand image, packaging, advertising campaign, pricing, or new product/service. Data may be collected through various means such as social media engagement, email questionnaires and surveys, Web analytics, reading competitor posts, and keyword search tools.

Website Banner Design
The process of creating an advertisement that will be embedded on a website page (your website or an outside website where you can purchase advertising space). These ads often contain a catchy headline, an image and a link that connects back to the advertiser’s website.

Website Design
The process of creating a website, its pages, its overall graphic look and feel, and its structure (how pages are organized and how the user navigates from one page to another on the website.) The knowledge of graphic design principles (layout, fonts, graphics, and color) as well as HTML (hypertext mark-up language) is required for custom website design. Advanced software skills are required for websites that include databases, movement and interactive elements. In today’s environment, website compatibility with mobile devices is also an essential ingredient for a successful website design. Predesigned and coded website templates are also available for quick and simple websites. Templates generally limit your design and functionality choices, but may be customizable by website designers and developers.

Website Development
This is a broad term that is most properly used to refer to the non-design aspects of building and maintaining a website (writing web scripts, database management, hand coding text pages in a web editor, etc.). Many website developers also possess design skills as well.